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Cambridge Immunology Network

Innate immunity
Molecular and structural biology


My latest research investigates the structure and function of mosquito immune receptors that have diverged and undergone gene duplication under the influence of selective pressure by Malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites and viruses such as Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. 

My background is in molecular and structural biology, in particular X-ray crystallography. My research interests lie at the intersection between structural biology and signal transduction with the aim of understanding the molecular mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions and activation of intracellular signalling pathways with atomic details.

I enjoy collaborative work and have successfully used protein modelling and docking to unravel the activation mechanism of mammalian TLR4 in collaboration with Professors Nick Gay and Clare Bryant, whose approach is to gain insight in innate immunity based on its species-specific response to molecular patterns of microbial origin. I am also interested in clarifying the mode of action of non-canonical TLR ligands, such as cationic lipids developed for gene therapy and vaccine adjuvancy. This work is done in collaboration with Professors Jean-Marie Ruysschaert and Camilla Foged.

Ultimately, I want to explore the structure-function relationships in insect and mammalian species to learn more about the fascinating mechanisms of protein network evolution.



Key publications: 
  • Lonez, C. et al. Critical residues involved in Toll-like receptor 4 activation by cationic lipid nanocarriers are not located at the lipopolysaccharide-binding interface. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 72, 3971–3982 (2015).
  • Irvine, K. L. et al. Identification of key residues that confer Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS activity at horse TLR4/MD-2. PLoS One 9, (2014).
  • Lewis, M. et al. Cytokine Spatzle binds to the Drosophila immunoreceptor Toll with a neurotrophin-like specificity and couples receptor activation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110, 20461–6 (2013).
  • Gangloff, M. et al. J. Liesegang-like patterns of Toll crystals grown in gel. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 46, 337–345 (2013).
  • Gangloff, M. Different dimerisation mode for TLR4 upon endosomal acidification? Trends Biochem. Sci. 37, 92–98 (2012).
  • Walsh, C. et al. Elucidation of the MD-2/TLR4 Interface Required for Signaling by Lipid IVa. J. Immunol. 181, 1245–1254 (2008).
  • Gay, N. J. & Gangloff, M. Structure and function of Toll receptors and their ligands. Annu Rev Biochem 76, 141–165 (2007).
  • Gangloff, M. et al. Crystal Structure of a Mutant hERalpha Ligand-binding Domain Reveals Key Structural Features for the Mechanism of Partial Agonism. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 15059–15065 (2001).



Dr Monique   Gangloff
Available for consultancy


Departments and institutes: 
Person keywords: 
host-pathogen interaction
innate immunity
structural biology
structure-function studies
Toll receptors
Toll-like receptors
X-ray crystallography