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Cambridge Immunology Network



I am a consultant gastroenterologist and clinical lead for the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) service at Addenbrooke's hospital. My research is focussed on understanding the regulation of the gastrointestinal immune system, in particular in the context of IBD.

I trained as a mucosal immunologist with a focus on understanding the biology of tissue resident cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. I undertook PhD and postdoctoral work in the laboratories of Prof. Anne Cooke (University of Cambridge), Prof. Adrian Hayday (King’s College, London), Prof Chris Rudd (Cambridge Institute for Medical Research) and Prof Arthur Kaser and Prof Miles Parkes (University of Cambridge). I developed novel techniques for the extraction and characterisation of immunocytes from human gut endoscopic biopsies and used these together with ex vivo analysis methods including polychromatic flow cytometry, live cell confocal microscopy and microfluidic systems. This system allows the study of human gastrointestinal lymphocytes using material from a range of patient groups including healthy control volunteers (a group not amenable to study using traditional large scale methods with surgical resection material). 

In 2015 I was appointed as an honorary faculty member of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton. Working together with Dr Carl Anderson and his group, we have developed novel laboratory and computational approaches for the understanding the transcriptomic (scRNA-Seq) and chromatin state (ATAC-Seq) landscape of individual cell populations in the human gut. By setting these data within the context of genetic polymorphisms and microbial signatures associated with IBD, we aim to understand the immunological basis for genetic risk in IBD as well as uncover novel pathways of immune regulation in the human gut. I receive support for this work as a co-PI on major research grants from the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation and the OpenTargets programme.

I have an interest in human clinical trials in IBD and am a principal or chief investigator on several ongoing industry-sponsored clinical trials. I am the lead investigator for the NIHR funded IASO trial of IL-1 blockade in acute severe ulcerative colitis. I have worked with a number of pharmaceutical companies in an advisory role, including studies from first-in-man through to late clinical phases. I serve on the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) IBD Clinical Research Group. 

I am a member of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) of which I am the current chair-elect of the Guidelines Committee, responsible for co-ordinating development and updating of the influential ECCO IBD guidelines. I am past chair of the Young-ECCO committee. In 2016 I was awarded the BSG Young Gastroenterologist of the Year award. I am an author/project lead on several sets of ECCO guidelines on management of IBD and on the BSG guidelines for the management of IBD.

I am the senior author of the Oxford Handbook for the Foundation Programme and the Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine (10th edition), and a chapter author on Crohn’s disease for the Oxford Textbook of Medicine (6th edition).


Key publications: 

Raine T et al. Establishment of a validated central reading system for ileocolonoscopy in an academic setting. Gut. 2022

Raine T and Danese S Breaking through the therapeutic ceiling: what will it take? Gastroenterology. 2021

Raine T, et al. ECCO Guidelines on Therapeutics in Ulcerative Colitis: Medical Treatment J Crohns Colitis 2021

Noor NM, Parkes M, Raine T Moving towards more patient-centred clinical trials in IBD Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021

Raine T, et al. ECCO topical review: Refractory IBD. J Crohns Colitis. 2021

Stournaras E, Qian W, Pappas A, Hong YY, Shawky R, UK IBD Bioresource Investigators, Raine T*, Parkes M* (*joint senior authorship) Thiopurine monotherapy is effective in ulcerative colitis but significantly less so in Crohn’s disease: long term outcomes for 11,928 patients in the UK Inflammatory Bowel Disease BioResource. Gut 2020

Olafsson S, McIntyre RE, Coorens T, Butler T, Jung H, Robinson P, Lee-Six Henry, Sanders MA, Arestang K, Dawson C, Tripathi M,  Strongili K, Hooks Y, Stratton MR, Parkes M, Martincorena1 I, Raine T*, Campbell PJ*, Anderson CA* (joint senior authorship) Somatic evolution in non-neoplastic IBD-affected colon Cell 2020

Raine T, Verstockt B, De Cruz P Immune therapies in ulcerative colitis: are we beyond anti-TNF yet? Lancet Gastro Hep 2020

 Adamina M, Bonovas S, Raine T, et al. ECCO Guidelines on Therapeutics in Crohn's Disease: Surgical Treatment J Crohns Colitis. 2019 doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz187

Torres J, Bonovas S, Doherty G, Kucharzik T, Gisbert JP, Raine T, Adamina M, Armuzzi A, Bachmann O, Bager P, Biancone L, Bokemeyer B, Bossuyt P, Burisch J, Collins P, El-Hussuna A, Ellul P, Frei-Lanter C, Furfaro F, Gingert C, Gionchetti P, Gomollon F, González-Lorenzo M, Gordon H, Hlavaty T, Juillerat P, Katsanos K, Kopylov U, Krustins E, Lytras T, Maaser C, Magro F, Marshall JK, Myrelid P, Pellino G, Rosa I, Sabino J, Savarino E, Spinelli A, Stassen L, Uzzan M, Vavricka S, Verstockt B, Warusavitarne J, Zmora O, Fiorino G. ECCO Guidelines on Therapeutics in Crohn's Disease: medical Treatment J Crohns Colitis. 2019 doi: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz180.

Lamb CA, Kennedy NA, Raine T, et al. British Society of Gastroenterology consensus guidelines on the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults.Gut.2019 doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2019-318484.

Sebastian S, Myers S, Argyriou K, Martin G, Los L, Fiske J, Ranjan R, Cooper B, Goodoory V, Ching HL, Jayasooriya N, Brooks J, Dhar A, Shenoy AH, Limdi JK, Butterworth J, Allen PB, Samuel S, Moran GW, Shenderey R, Parkes G, Lobo A, Kennedy NA, Subramanian S, Raine T.Infliximab induction regimens in steroid-refractory acute severe colitis: a multicentre retrospective cohort study with propensity score analysis. APT. 2019 Sep;50(6):675-683. doi: 10.1111/apt.15456.

Selinger CP, Parkes G, Bassi A, Limdi JK, Ludlow H, Patel P, Smith M, Saluke S, Ndlovu Z, George B, Saunders J, Adamson M, Fraser A, Robinson G, Donovan F, Parisi I, Tidbury J, Gray L, Pollok R, Scott G, Raine T. Assessment of steroid use as a key performance indicator in inflammatory bowel disease—analysis of data from 2385 UK patients. APT. 2019 Nov;50(9):1009-1018

Thomas MG, Bayliss C, Bond S, Dowling F, Galea J, Jairath V, Lamb C, Probert C, Timperley-Preece E, Watson A, Whitehead L, Williams JG, Parkes M, Kaser A, Raine T. Trial summary and protocol for a phase II randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded trial of Interleukin 1 blockade in Acute Severe Colitis: the IASO trial. BMJ Open. 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e023765. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023765.

Moschen A, Tilg H, Raine T IL-12, IL-23 and IL-17 in IBD: immunobiology and therapeutic targeting Nature Reviews Gastro Hep 2018 doi: 10.1038/s41575-018-0084-8

Selinger CP, Parkes GC, Bassi A, Fogden E, Hayee B, Limdi JK, Ludlow H, McLaughlin S, Patel P, Smith M, Raine T. A multi-centre audit of excess steroid use in 1176 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. APT 2017 doi: 10.1111/apt.14334

Danese S, Fiorino G, Raine T et al. ECCO position statement on the use of biosimilars for inflammatory bowel disease – An update J Crohns Colitis. 2017 11:26-34

Cader MZ, Boroviak K, Zhang Q, Assadi G, Kempster SL, Sewell GW, Saveljeva S, Ashcroft JW, Clare S, Mukhopadhyay S, Brown KP, Tschurtschenthaler M, Raine T, Doe B, Chilvers ER, Griffin JL, Kaneider NC, Floto RA, D'Amato M, Bradley A, Wakelam MJ, Dougan G, Kaser A. C13orf31 (FAMIN) is a central regulator of immunometabolic function. Nat Immunol. 2016 17:1046-56.

Harbord M, Raine T and 18 co-2nd authors, Carbonnel F The First European Evidence-Based Consensus on Extra-Intestinal Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, J Crohn’s Colitis 2016 10:239-54.

Raine T, Liu J, Anderson C, Parkes M, Kaser A Generation of primary human intestinal T cell transcriptomes reveals differential expression at genetic risk loci for immune mediated disease. Gut. 2015 64:250-9

Adolph TE, Tomczak MF, Niederreiter L, Ko HJ, Böck J, Martinez-Naves E, Glickman JN, Tschurtschenthaler M, Hartwig J, Hosomi S, Flak MB, Cusick JL, Kohno K, Iwawaki T, Billmann-Born S, Raine T, Bharti R, Lucius R, Kweon MN, Marciniak SJ, Choi A, Hagen SJ, Schreiber S, Rosenstiel P, Kaser A, Blumberg RS. Paneth cells as a site of origin for intestinal inflammation. Nature. 2013 503(7475):272-6. 

Niederreiter L, Fritz TM, Adolph TE, Krismer AM, Offner FA, Tschurtschenthaler M, Flak MB, Hosomi S, Tomczak MF, Kaneider NC, Sarcevic E, Kempster SL, Raine T, Esser D, Rosenstiel P, Kohno K, Iwawaki T, Tilg H, Blumberg RS, Kaser A. ER stress transcription factor Xbp1 suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis and directs intestinal stem cells. J Exp Med. 2013 Sep 23;210(10):2041-56.

Raine T, Kaser A. Seventeen in Crohn's disease: less prime than we thought? Gut.2 012; 61(12):1653-4. 

Other publications: 

Oxford Handbook for the Foundation Programme(Oxford Handbooks Series) 5thEdition Raine T, Collins G, Hall C, Hjelde N Oxford University PressOctober, 2018 ISBN 0198813538

Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine (Oxford Handbooks Series) 10th edition Wilkinson IB, Raine T, Wiles K, Goodhart A, Hall C, O’Neill H Oxford University Press July 2017 ISBN 0199689903


Dr Tim  Raine
Takes PhD students
Available for consultancy


Departments and institutes: 
Person keywords: 
mucosal immunology